The young person of today are born into the digital epoch, following the rapid development in engineerings peculiarly in the growing of the Internet, related peripherals and devices in the 1990s. Digital media such as electronic mail, instant messaging, societal web, online games, information sharing sites, such as Facebook, and YouTube have infiltrated the mundane lives of the young persons. A The modern-day young person portions some distinctive features in societal behaviours holding grown up in an environment of digital media.
Harmonizing to Marc Prensky ( 2001 ) 1 an American author and talker on acquisition and instruction described the young persons as “ Digital Natives ” who grew up with engineering in the 21th century typically those aged between 15-35 old ages of age. And “ Digital Migrants ” as a coevals of engineering users who have to follow to alterations and developments through larning to utilize new engineering.
Over the old ages, immature people who are raised with the computing machine “ think and procedure information basically otherwise ” compared to the older coevals who has to do the passage from acquiring information through traditional non-mediated media such as through books, newspapers, and telecasting. “ Digital Natives ” are hence equipped with the ability to multitask, prefer artworks more so text and work better when networked. They are really good connected with the cyberspace with random entree to infinite sum of information online.
However, we should be aware that non all young persons are privileged to be exposed to the use of digital media at a immature age. Young persons differ greatly in their degree of media literacy, and this in footings have to make with their personal psychological developments and the environment that they grow up with.
As Human Computer Interaction ( HCI ) practicians, we are really much concern in doing the interaction with the computing machine as safe, effectual and efficient as possible for the young person population. HCI in design can be the solutions to the jobs that arises with the prevalent usage of digital media among young persons.
In order to make so, we have to look into how the young persons are utilizing digital media. Why are they utilizing such engineerings and the motives for young person to prosecute in acquisition and with digital media? With the apprehension of such young person goaded use of digital media we in bend come up scheme to turn to issues that arises with young person engagement in digital media.
We will look at the potency of tackling the corporate attempt of information sharing such as within the societal networking site among the young person as we analyse the acquisition forms of young person as they explore new digital engineering.
By mentioning popular societal web media Facebook as an illustration, we will travel through in deepness survey of some of the key features that focal point on youth civilization and discourse some of the serviceability issues environing the usage of such web site.
In add-on, we look at how young persons are utilizing YouTube for different activities online. And discourse some of the restrictions of picture uploads and sharing.
Last, we can look at another societal networking site Edmodo, which targets at young person scholar and instructors. To see how the serviceability issues can be addressed. Equally good as discuss some of pros and cons of utilizing such a site for educational intent.
A A A We live in the universe that engineering, scientific discipline and art and communicating are integrated each other. New media engineering is meant assorted applications that transfer information via digital techniques. An debut to new media could be internet, and associating this cyberspace with facets of other media. Press, wireless and telecasting left behind new media. Now new media that combine digital media and synergistic media explore many and many. A The digital is the chief constituent in new media. Technologies that converge return and portion the ability and features of other engineerings based on nucleus engineering.
New media can assist people to
A· A A A A A A A A Connect them with their households, friends.
A· A A A A A A A A Collaborate with their organisation.
A· A A A A A A A A Create content, services, communities and channels that are enable deliver information to other people.
Since 1990s, the manner to pass on, the manner to entree information soucres, A the manner to happen beginnings and the manner to pass leisure clip has been changed by cyberspace and communicating engineering ( ICT ) . These alterations are affected across people ‘s lifestyle and economic system.
A A A A A A A A A A Social web sites, on-line game, picture sharing system, electronic appliances such i-Phone, nomadic phone, portable computing machines, i-Pad are placed in most of people who are child to grownups. It is surprised that these engineerings are emerged during this decennaries. Most of people are adapted these engineerings based on developing cognition and individuality. They make communicating, friend, educational activities, playing, showing theirselves by utilizing these engineerings. Some people feel worry researching these sorts of engineering dramatically. Young people are more participate in Facebook, YouTube, Livejournal and on-line gambling.
“ Media literacy is the ability to entree, analyze, evaluate, and bring forth communicating in a assortment of signifiers. “ ( NLC, 2003 ) Media literacy instruction is non restricted formal schoolroom. Beyond the schoolroom, media literacy accomplishments can be learned assorted sorts of plan as after-school activities. Media literacy lessons can assist immature people harmful effects sing and utilizing media. The intent of media literacy is “ to assist pupils develop the wonts of enquiry and accomplishments of look they need to be critical minds, effectual communicators and active citizens in today ‘s universe. ” A ( NAMLE )
Media Literacy Involves:
Learning about media how can be used expeditiously
Prosecuting with user ‘s ain cognition when reexamining or measuring media messages
Knowing where can acquire information from assorted beginnings
Recognizing that media have influence on beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviours, and the democratic procedure
Improve engagement to citizen
Receiving more understanding and acquiring multiple positions
Knowing to pass on and show one thing utilizing different sorts of media ( 6 Key Concepts )
Harmonizing to the 6 Key Concepts in media analysis:
All media messages are “ constructed. ”
Each medium has different features, strengths, and a alone “ linguistic communication ” of building.
Media messages are produced for peculiar intents.
All media messages contain embedded values and points of position.
Peoples use their single accomplishments, beliefs and experiences to build their ain significances from media messages.
Media and media messages can act upon beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviours and the democratic procedure ( 6 Key Concepts )
A A A A A A A A A A Most people particularly immature people do dialogues with their friends known as equals. Friendship_driven wonts are centered on equals particularly from school, but some might be occurred through what they heard and what they saw in media, or faith groups, school athletics groups and other local activity groups. Friendship_Driven patterns are sometimes good but sometimes bad. Friendship_Driven leads to activities and involvements.
A A A A A A A A A A Interest_driven centre through their involvements such as politician, musician, painter, author, and histrion. For those sort of immature people might hold different societal web and create deep friendly relationship based on interest_driven battle. Such sort of immature people, societal web is based on their involvement and followed by the involvement.
There is a demand for young persons to be seen, heard and be able to place over in the digital universe. There is a psychological procedure in which the young persons have to travel through for them to developed their individuality. And societal networking sites like Facebook allows the young persons a platform to show themselves among friends by posting pictures, exposures and updating their position. Another popular site MySpace focal point on Music involvement among the young persons by associating musical sets to their fans. By take parting in such societal interactions young persons can be identify themselves with their involvement and therefore organize a group individuality on the cyberspace, and have their presence felt despite the fact their being in a practical sense. Which sometimes differ from their “ offline ” individualities. ( Buckingham, 2007 ) 2
This can be confounding for the young persons as specially when they have to beguile both their “ online ” and “ offline ” lives. More so frequently, it consequences in youths holding to make two or more individualities in their “ online ” universe in order to fulfill certain outlooks that they may meet in their existent life. For illustration, a adolescent pupil may hold one history on Facebook to add her parents as her friend and another history for her equals.
Young persons across a different age age groups differ greatly in the degree of adulthood and ability to manage the dangers of internet use. Often, young persons tend to fall quarry to cyber intimidation, individuality larceny and inappropriate web sites.
Harmonizing to a study by Singapore Polytechnic ( Qiuyi. 2011 ) 3 affecting 800 Singaporeans aged between 15 and 35. A Singapore young persons do non look to be paying adequate attending to online security and privateness. One in four does non utilize the privateness maps of societal networking sites, while some 15 per cent are non even cognizant that such maps exist.
Most young persons have the outlook that since they are neither celebrated or of import they do non believe that anyone would desire to steal their individuality. Thus, 33 per cent spring aliens entree to their societal networking profiles.
In add-on, a 3rd of the young persons admit barricading their parents. This is peculiarly alarming as parents are the 1s seeking to protect the young persons from internet mishap. However, young persons seems to experience that such important figures are invasive to their privateness. But on the contrary, they are willing to supply entree to their societal networking profiles to aliens.
Another survey by package security house Norton last twelvemonth said three out of 10 kids said their parents have no thought what they do online. This shows that non merely young persons are vulnerable, nescient and unmindful about cyber security issues, parents excessively need to be educated about the booby traps of internet use to assist do the cyberspace a safer environment for their kids.
Despite the diverseness of civilizations, race and ethnicity of the young persons around the universe, concern over the digital infiltration have been raised among pedagogues, authorities and bookmans to look into such a digital young person phenomena.
Particularly as young persons are represented as bulk of cyberspace users when it comes to working, larning every bit good as instant messaging and societal networking in Singapore, harmonizing to the study by IDA in 20094.
There is a rise in trust of new media in Singapore ( Nielsen. 2009 ) 5
, and the cyberspace have become the first beginning of information for the young person, when it comes to research for acquisition and school work. Internet hunts can be easy done by come ining keywords into Google with the chink of a button. More so frequently, youth are motivated by their involvement to achieve in-depth information to their related hunts. Furthermore, young persons can take part in genre specific forums and groups online and prosecute in information sharing among like-minded equals.
Young persons have benefited from this signifier of instant interaction in deriving more cognition in their involvement country. However, this besides challenges tradition signifiers of institutionalized acquisition, as there is non much control over the types of information that the young person are acquiring.
On one manus, there is a free flow of information over the cyberspace. On the other manus, we have no thought what youths today are larning on the cyberspace, which causes concern over the rightness of information contributed by anyone anon. .
Young persons differ greatly in their degree of cognitive adulthood, particularly when they developing A their sense of individuality in the society. Therefore, as HCI practicians we should non overrate their ability to spot and the credibleness of information ( Flanagin, Andrew J. , and Miriam Metzger. 2008 ) 6 that are widely available on the cyberspace. Most of the clip information are contributed by a assortment of beginnings and frequently copied from one beginning to another. Making it difficult to follow the beginning of information.
Further more, web content possibly sponsored or supported by paying advertizers, for illustration Google ads are displayed and tagged to certain pictures uploaded to YouTube. There is a inquiry of whether young persons are able to spot and construe the messages that are presented to them on the cyberspace.
Therefore, young persons are peculiarly vulnerable when it comes to unwraping personal information and profiles by reacting to such online sponsored links. The dangers are evident in footings for their physical safety, as young persons are targeted for their naivete and autumn quarry to online solidating and fraud.
A recent study was made about certain slimming pills that are available on a blogging site. Young persons rely on the information that are given by the other users of the merchandises on the web log posters. Often the information and feedback are provided by the Sellerss themselves, touting the benefits of the merchandises. Health attention professionals and governments warns the populace on the hazards of buying such points online as it is difficult to verify the safety of contents and ingredients that are present in the merchandises. Yet, youth are the 1s who purchase such points that could harm their wellness ( Gan. 2011 ) 7.
Despite issues that have come up with young person battles with the digital media, there is existent potency within the educational field where the free flow of information and young person engagement could be harness for corporate acquisition.
Since young persons readily prosecute in online activities through active engagement, they are more unfastened to information sharing, there is a big base of users to lend cognition sharing. Where young persons can develop in their country of involvement in specialized communities to larn from each other.
Harmonizing to Constructivist Learning Theory ( Brooks, J. and Brooks, M. 1993 ) 8. , cognition is invariably built upon creative activity of intending A through sharing of information and experiences. Therefore, digital media such as popular online forums and societal networking sites provides a platform for young persons to portion utile information on the subjects of their interest.Therefore, digital media provides an thought platform for larning through the sharing of information.
We do non recommend to curtail the flow of information on the cyberspace, alternatively we urge to utilize HCI to strike a balance between protecting the young persons and assisting them to achieve choice information with the usage of digital media.
We can non presume that young persons who has grown up and are accustom with the digital media are adept users. But we seek to better the design of systems to help the young persons in their usage of digital media.
Mindful of such issues, that arise from youth use of the digital media, HCI practicians should accommodate to the demands of young persons media literacy instead than allowing users adapt to the engineering. And strive to deduce a system for the young persons to expeditiously achieve information that are relevant, in a safe environment.
Example Analysis Facebook
Analysis of YouTube Video
A A A YouTube is a picture sharing web site that is really utile and serviceability of all sorts of instruction and amusement. Peoples use YouTube for many intents such as policy, instruction, music, picture and chitchat, etc. Whatever they use, YouTube is a good tools for concern and instruction every bit good.
A A A Why YouTube is really popular among the people? Answer is really simple. As it is utile and serviceability for all Fieldss. For those users who are non member, they can see and larn from YouTube picture. For those users who are members of YouTube, they can upload and see pictures. Members and non-members are a small different.
A A A Suppose a patient demand to do operation ( Lashkar-e-Taiba ‘s state gall bladder rocks ) , he or she can see picture on YouTube in progress so that she knows good about operation and non to experience disquieted. Such sort of usefulness, people realize that YouTube is a good utile tool for all information. The more users are A more literate, the more they can utilize new media so that they can utilize it effectual in their life.
A A A YouTube started at 2005 and by 2006, people were sing 100 million videos a twenty-four hours and more than 65,000 pictures are uploaded a twenty-four hours. Now YouTube is owned by Google.
Features Of YouTube Video
A A A This step is from 22 February, 2007 to stop of April, 2007. Some factors are inactive ( e.g. class, picture length and day of the month added ) A and it is adequate one time step but some are dynamic and informations are varied ( e.g. positions, evaluation and remarks ) .
A A A There are 12 classs in YouTube. Among them, music is the most popular class. After that, amusement is 2nd and comedy is 3rd. Unavailable class are set for picture that are stated that inappropriate picture. Removed classs are videos that are deleted or removed by uploader or moderator due to against footings of usage.
A A A Most waiters can accept little and average picture lengths typically A 0.5-2 hr films. YouTube can accept short clipped pictures. Over 97 % of picture lenghs are 600 seconds and over 99 % are within 700 seconds. Small sum of authorised users can upload videos longer than 10 proceedingss.
File Size and Bit Rate
A A A Avrage picture file size is about 8.4 Megabytes. There are over 42.5 million YouTube pictures, more than 357 tetrabytes are requied to hive away.
A A A The figure of viewing audiences can state pictures that are popular among users. Some research reviews this evaluation with Zipf ‘s jurisprudence, Pn ~ 1/na, where Pn is the frequence of happening of the n-th graded point and a is close to 1.
Edmodo is an illustration of Social Networking site that is tailored to instruction for the young persons. It can be described as a mircoblogging site that connects the instructors who are the chief moderators for making the online community where pupils every bit good as parents can take part. .
Some of the characteristics in Edmodo includes polls, image, file uploads, fond regards of links and a library to screen different paperss uploaded by the instructors and pupils. Edmodo offers a platform for instructors to pass on with the pupils during after school hours. Where pupils can post their responses to the subjects of treatments or assignments setup by the instructors and be alerted through RSS provenders. Posters can be received via computing machine, nomadic phones or other wireless devices.
Students and instructors can track the recent posters through the calender. Teachers can besides supply classs to the pupils assignments through Edmodo.
In footings of serviceability, Edmodo represents a clean simple expression without jumble on the chief page. The login and enrollment is clear as there are merely two picks, the user can either login as a pupil or a instructor. Both nowadayss different interfaces that cater to the demands for different users.
Privacy and security issue is addressed where pupils have to register with a group codification provided by the instructors. This offer a safe environment as pupils can be certain to come in the particular community assigned by the instructor. If the pupils are under age of 18 personal information can merely be disclosed with parent or defender ‘s consent.
In Edmodo, pupils ‘ profiles can merely be viewed by the user groups that they belong to, merely pupils names and exposures will be displayed. Students can either take to supply their electronic mail or take non to unwrap their electronic mails. This adds to protect pupils from unneeded electronic mail Spams in the hereafter.
Overall, Edmodo allows enlargement to different larning communities, where instructors can tap on the similar involvement of the community and supply chances for collaborative acquisition.
However, there are drawbacks to Edmodo exactly because it allows the pupils non to supply electronic mail reference, immediate updates on posters can non be alerted through the electronic mail. Unlike in Facebook where responses to can be directed to the electronic mail reference of the users if the user choose to enable the electronic mail qui vive map. In the instance of Edmodo updates can merely be alerted through RSS provenders.
The information construction for Edmodo is besides stiff as users can non organize the information harmonizing to their manner they work. Where posters are organised in a top down manner. Where the latest posters is organised at the top.
Students are non allowed to hold private treatments as instructors have a entree to all group posters. This characteristic can be good to forestall pupils from rip offing on assignments but bad for collaborative work if the pupils need to hold private treatments among themselves.
Unlike, Facebook or other societal networking sites that are providing to a broad scope of users where it is difficult to measure the manner the site is used for, Edmodo, is more user particular. Therefore, supplying users more ways to entree and organise information is of import to better user satisfaction. Credit nevertheless, can be given to the clean interface, sufficient feedback and instructions to steer the user through enrollment login and posters. Making it an overall, pleasant platform for community based information sharing. A
Facebook was launched in February 2004 as a Harvard-only on-line societal networking site. Since its launch, Facebook had successfully expanded into the college, high school, and grownup markets. The move to let grownups to fall in Facebook in September 2006 gave rise to its explosive planetary growing ; its users increased from 12 million in December 2006 to 350 million in December 2009 ( Hew, 2010 ) .
A A A Today, Facebook is the biggest and most popular online societal web. In 2009, it overtook MySpace, which is its rival and has a longer history. Experian Hitwise reported that Facebook was the top hunt term in 2010, and it was the top visited web site in 2010 for the first clip, catching Google.com.
An person will make his or her “ profile ” , which is a web page incorporating basic information such as the user ‘s birthday or involvements, upon registering with Facebook. Facebook allows the user to direct messages to “ ask for ” other persons A to fall in it. There are many ways for users to pass on with each other on Facebook. Users are able to post short messages, exposure, music or picture cartridge holder on their ain “ wall ” , which is a infinite on their profile and is similar to a noticeboard, or on that of another friend. A user may direct private messages to another member utilizing the “ Send Message ” map that is similar to an electronic mail service, with the exclusion that no electronic mail reference is required and the message is sent to one individual merely. Users can execute on-line communicating in real-time with friends utilizing the “ Chat ” map, which is similar to instant messaging. Facebook enables any user to make ” Groups ” for any ground and each group has its ain page.
A A A Last but non least, “ News Feed ” is a watercourse of stations that is displayed on a user ‘s home page and it provides the user an overview of the motions of his friends in a “ push ” theoretical account. A
Hew ( 2010 ) identified nine motivations of pupils for utilizing Facebook. These are: to keep relationship, to run into new people, to do oneself more popular, to kill clip, to show oneself, to help acquisition, to utilize as a tool for pull offing undertakings, for pupil activism, and in conclusion, utilizing Facebook is cool and merriment. Students use Facebook largely to keep relationships with people whom they know offline. Facebook characteristics, such as “ Wall ” posters and profile information, support such activities.
A A A A Pempek, Yermolayeva, & A ; Calvert ( 2008 ) reported that Facebook profile allows the users to expose their individuality and this plays an of import function in the development of young person individuality. Students express their individuality often by posting media penchants such as favourite books, favourite music, and more. Similarly, they post exposures to show themselves. Less frequently selected agencies of self-expressions are political positions, faith, and others.
A A A Harmonizing to Pempek et Al. ( 2008 ) , pupils spend much of their clip “ skulking ” on Facebook. Three popular “ lurking ” activities are: reading other users ‘ profiles, looking at exposure, and reading the intelligence provender of the activities of their friends.
A A A Cheung, Chiu, & A ; Lee ( 2010 ) found that societal presence is “ the most of import factor that determines pupils ‘ use of Facebook. ” Social presence refers to the grade whereby an person is witting of another person in a technology-mediated communicating scene ( Weinel, Bannert, Zumbach, Hoppe, & A ; Malzahn, 2010 ) . Facebook ‘s characteristics, such as “ News Feed ” and “ Chat ” , stress the presence of other people in the practical environment, ensuing in a high perceived societal presence, and hence exercise a strong influence on users to go on to utilize Facebook to link and pass on immediately with their friends ( Cheung et al. , 2010 ) .
The New York Times, The Washington Post, CNN and PCWorld had reported that Facebook and other societal webs had played an of import function in the death of President Hosni Mubarak ‘s 30-year-rule in Egypt. The Egyptian protest was sparked by the decease of a 28-year-old Egyptian man of affairs, Khaled Said. He was beaten to decease by constabulary officers. Within yearss of his decease, a Facebook page ( We Are All Khaled Said ) that posted exposures of his tattered organic structure, was created. It became the biggest dissenter Facebook page in Egypt, and it helped to distribute the word of the presentations in Egypt. Facebook had enabled discontented immature Egyptians to form, mobilise, and coordinate protests. News Feed enabled intelligence to be broadcasted widely and big groups to be formed almostly A immediately.
ScienceDaily reported that cyber-bullying is a turning job among striplings and culprits frequently uses new engineerings such as Facebook to hassle their victims. An illustration is the instance of an American twosome who cyber-bullied a deceasing 7-year-old. WJBK FOX 2 Detroit reported that the twosome posted a exposure of the terminally-ill schoolgirl on Facebook above a set of crossed castanetss and another exposure of the miss ‘s dead female parent in the weaponries of the Grim Reaper.
A A A A Another turning tendency as reported by Adelaide Now is cyber-vandalism “ in which societal media site users post obscene messages and adult content on testimonial pages. ” Herald Sun reported that adult and distressing images, some of which featured dead babes and fetuss, were posted on a Facebook site dedicated to Queensland inundation victims.
A A A A Last but non least, privateness is another major concern. When News Feed was implemented in September 2006, many users were upset by it and 100s of groups were formed to protest against it, taking to the debut of enhanced privateness controls ( Kirkpatrick, 2010 ) . Hoadley, Xu, Lee, & A ; Rosson ( 2009 ) explained that the new interface “ triggered users ‘ perceptual experience of increasing information handiness ” . On the other manus, with the old interface, a user had to deliberately seek for information updates in another user ‘s profile.
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