Some parts of an angiosperm are modified so it could easily adapt to their environment. Modifications can be in form of modified leaves, stems, roots, or flowers.
An example is the Bougainvillea which grows in places with warm climate. The plant has thorns which allow the plant to protect itself from a lot of predators. The thorns are modification of the stem. For the Bougainvillea, the stem still serves as food and water transport but has an additional function which is for protection.
The plant Bougainvillea is also very colorful because of the bracts. The plant seems to be flowery when, in fact, the flowers of this plant are very small and are not that colorful, rather, they are usually white. The “flower” that we see is actually leaves of the plant modified in such a way that it would look like a flower. The plant does this so it will become attractive to pollinators. These leaves are called bracts. The can come in colors of red, white, pink, violet or yellow. The bracts strategically surround the real flower, the tiny and not colorful flower, so that when the attracted pollinators come, they may come in contact with the real flowers and reproduction is favored. Because of this feature of the plant, many use Bougainvillea as an ornamental plant.
The leaves are usually used for light absorption and photosynthesis. For the Bougainvillea, an additional function for the leaves is to ensure reproduction by attracting pollinators to its not so attractive flowers. This ensures that life will go on for the plant.
Campbell, Neil (1996). Biology, 4th ed. California: Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.
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